Manual Testing Concepts

1 Software Quality:

Technical Factors:

Meet customer requirements in terms of Functionality

Meet customer expectations in terms of Performance, Usability, Security, etc…

Non-Technical Factors:

Reasonable cost to purchase.

Time to release.

1.1 Software Quality Assurance (SQA):

The Monitoring and Measuring the strength of development process is called Software Quality Testing. Ex: Life Cycle Testing.

1.2 Software Quality Control (SQC):

The validation of final product before releasing to the customer is called as SQC.

2 Software Development Process:

In the above Software Development process, testing is been conducted as a single stage by the development team. To improve quality in software development process, project management should concentrate on multiple stages of development with multiple stages of testing.

Fish model software development: Upper angle is life cycle development and lower angle is life cycle testing.

Information gathering defines what and Analysis defines how.

BRS: Business requirement specification defines the requirement the customer to be developed as software. This document is also known as Customer Requirement Specification (CRS) or User Requirement Specification (URS).

SRS: Software requirement specification defines functional requirements to be developed and system requirement to be used (Hardware and Software).

Example: BRS defines addition (Customer requirement). SRS defines how to solve customer requirement.

Review: It is a static testing technique. In this review responsible people will estimate completeness and correctness of corresponding documents.

HLD: High Level Design document defines the overall architecture of the system from root functionalities to leaf functionalities. This HLD is also known as Architectural Design or External Design.

LLD: Low Level Design document defines the internal logic of corresponding module (or) functionality. The LLD is also known as Internal Logic Design document.

Prototype: A sample model of an application without functionality is called prototype.

Program : A set of execute statements is called a Program.

Module : A set of programs is called as a Module or Unit.

Build : The set of modules is called as Software Build or Product.

White Box Testing: It is a coding level testing technique to verify the completeness and correctness of program structure. Programmers will follow this technique. It is also known as Glass Box Testing (or) Clear Box Testing (or) Open Box Testing.

Black Box Testing: It is a build level testing technique. In this testing test engineers will validate every feature depending on external interface.

Software Testing: The Verification and Validation of a software application is called software testing.

Verification: Are we building the product right?

Validation: Are we building the right product?

3 V-Model

V stands for Verification and Validation. This model defines mapping between development process and testing process.

3.1 Refinement form of V-Model

The real V-model is expensive to follow for small and medium scale organizations. Due to this reason, small and medium scale organizations maintains separate testing team for System Testing phase.

3.2 Reviews during Analysis

In general the software development process starts with requirements gathering and analysis. In this phase business analyst category people will develop BRS and SRS. After development of the documents the same business analyst category people will conduct review meetings to estimate completeness and correctness of the documents. In this review meeting, the same business analyst category people will concentrate on below checklist. BRS è SRS.

1. Are the requirements correct?

2. Are the requirements complete?

3. Are they achievable (w.r.t Technology)?

4. Are they reasonable (w.r.t Time)?

5. Are they testable?

3.3 Reviews during Design

After completion of analysis and then reviews the design category people will develop HLD’s and LLD’s. The same design category people will conduct review meetings to estimate completeness and correctness of the design documents. In the review the same design category people will concentrate on below checklist HLD è LLD.

1. Does the design understandable?

2. Are the correct requirements met?

3. Does the design complete?

4. Does the design follow able (w.r.t Coding)?

5. Do they handle errors?

3.4 Unit Testing

After completion of design and their reviews, programmers will concentrate on coding to construct software physically. In this phase programmers will test every program through a set of white box testing techniques w.r.t LLD.

1. Basis paths testing.

2. Control structure testing.

3. Program technique testing (Time).

4. Mutation Testing

3.4.1 Basis Path Testing

In this coverage programmers will verify the execution of program without any syntax and run time errors. In this coverage programmers will execute a program more than one time to cover all areas of that program coding while running.

3.4.2 Control Structure Testing

In this coverage programmers will concentrate on correctness of the program functionality. In this coverage programmers will check statements in the program including variables declaration, IF conditions, Loops, etc….

3.4.3 Program Technique Coverage

In this coverage programmers will verify the execution time of program to improve speed in processing. If the execution time is not reasonable then the programmers will change the structure of the program without disturbing functionality.

3.4.4 Mutation Testing

After completion of a program testing, the corresponding programs will review the completeness and correctness of the program testing. Mutation means that a change in coding of the program, in this Mutation testing programmers will perform changes in various areas in the program and repeat previously completed tests. If all the tests are passed on the changed program, then the program will continue testing on some program. If any one of the tests is failed on the change in program, then the program will concentrate on further coding.

Note: in white box Testing techniques, the first 3 techniques will test program code and the mutation testing will estimate the completeness and correctness of the test on the program.

3.5 Integration Testing

After completion of dependent programs development and unit testing, programmers will inter connect the programs to construct a complete software build. In this stage programmers will verify integration of programs in four types of approaches.

a. Top Down Approach.

b. Bottom Up Approach.

c. Hybrid Approach.

d. System Approach.

3.5.1 Top Down Approach

In this approach the programmers will inter connect main models to some of the modules in the place of remaining sub modules programmers will use temporary programs called Stubs.

3.5.2 Bottom up Approach

In this approach the programmers will inter connect sub modules without connection to the main module. Programmers will use a temporary program instead of main module called Driver.

3.5.3 Hybrid Approach

It is a combined approach of Top Down and Bottom Up approaches. This approach is also known as Sandwich approach.

3.5.4 System Approach

It is also known as Final Integration (or) Big Bang Approach. In this integration programmers will inter connect programs after completion of total development.

Note: In general the programmers will inter connect programs through any one of the above methods depending on circumstances.

3.6 System Testing

After completion of Integration Testing, and receiving the build from development team, the testing team will concentrate on system testing to conduct using Black Box Testing techniques.

System Testing is divided into 3 sub stages.

1. Usability Testing.

2. Functional Testing

3. Non-Functional Testing.

3.6.1 Usability Testing

After receiving software build from development team, the testing team will conduct usability testing. In this test the testing team will estimate “User Friendly ness” of all screens in the software build. There are two sub tests.

3.6.1.1 User Interface Testing or UI Testing

In this test, the testing team will apply below 3 factors on every screen of the software build.

· Ease of use: To estimate understandability of screen.

· Look and Feel: To estimate attractiveness of screen.

· Speed in Interface: To estimate length of navigation as short.

3.6.1.2 Manual Support Testing

During this test the testing team will validate the correctness and completeness of help documents. These help documents are also known as User Manuals.

Case Study:

3.6.2 Functional Testing

It is a mandatory testing level in testing team responsibilities. During this test, testing team will concentrate on “Meet customer Requirements” through below sub tests.

a. Requirement Testing.

b. Sanitation Testing.

3.6.2.1 Requirements Testing

It is also known as Functionality Testing. During this test the responsible testing team will apply different coverage techniques as discussed below on the functionalities of software build.

· GUI Coverage / Behavioral Coverage: Changes in properties of objects in screens while operating.

· Error Handling Coverage: To prevent wrong operation on screens.

· Input Domain Coverage: Testing correct type and size of input values

· Manipulations Coverage: Returning correct output values.

· Back End Coverage: Valid impact of screens operations on back end data base tables.

· Functionalities Order Coverage: The arrangements of screens in the software build with respect to order of functionalities.

3.6.2.2 Sanitation Testing

During this test the testing team will concentrate on extra functionalities with respect to requirements of the customer. This testing is also known as garbage testing.

3.6.3 Non-Functional Testing

After completion of user interface and functional testing, the testing team will concentrate on Non-Functional Testing to validate quality characteristics of software build Like Security and Performance.

3.6.3.1 Recovery Testing

This testing is also known as Reliability Testing. During this test, the testing team will validate that whether the software build is changing from abnormal state to normal state.

3.6.3.2 Compatibility Testing

It is also known as Portability Testing. During this test, the testing team will validate that whether the software build is running on the customer expected platforms or not?.

3.6.3.3 Configuration Testing

It is also known as hardware compatibility testing. During this test the testing team will validate that whether the software build is supporting different technology hardware devices or not?

Example: Different technology printers.

Different topology networks, etc….

3.6.3.4 Inter Systems Testing

It is also known as End-to-End Testing. During this test the testing team will validate that whether the software build co-exists with other software applications to share common resources.

Example: Sharing data, sharing hardware devices, printers, speakers, sharing memory, etc….

3.6.3.5 Installation Testing

During this test, the testing team will establish customer site like configured environment. The testing team is practice installation of software build in to that environment.

3.6.3.6 Load Testing

The execution of the software build under customer expected configuration and customer expected load to estimate speed of processing is called as load testing. Here, load means that the no of concurrent users working on the software. This is also known as scalability testing.

3.6.3.7 Stress Testing

The execution of the software build under customer expected configuration and various load levels from low to peak is called stress testing. In this testing, testing team will concentrate on load handling by the software build.

3.6.3.8 Storage Testing

Testing whether the system meets its specified storage objectives.

Testing the data of different formats and in different devices. Verifying the efficiency of data storage in devices and proper retrieval of the data.

3.6.3.9 Data Volume Testing

Volume testing refers to testing a software application with a certain amount of data. This amount can, in generic terms, be the database size or it could also be the size of an interface file that is the subject of volume testing. For example, if you want to volume test your application with a specific database size, you will expand your database to that size and then test the application’s performance on it.

Example: MS Access technology support 2GB of database as maximum.

3.6.3.10 Parallel Testing

It is also known as Comparative Testing. During this test, the testing team will compare the software build with other competitive software in market or with old version of same software build to estimate completeness. This is applicable only for software product but not on software applications.

3.7 User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

After completion of all possible Functional and Non-Functional tests, the project manager will concentrate on user acceptance testing to collect feedback from customer site people. There are two approaches to conduct UAT, such as a-Test and b-Test.

a-Test

b-Test

1. Software applications.

2. At development site.

3. By real customers.

1. Software products.

2. In customer site like environment.

3. By customers site like people.

Collect Feedback

3.8 Testing during maintenance

After completion of user acceptance test and their modifications, project management concentrate on release team formation with few developers, few testers and few hardware engineers. This release team is coming to customers site and conduct port testing.

During this port testing release team concentrate on below factors in customers site.

· Compact installation

· Overall functionality

· Input devices handling

· Output devices handling

· Secondary storage devices handling

· Co-existence with other software to share common resources

· Operating system error handling

After completion of port testing, release team provides training sessions to customer site people.

During utilization of the software, customer site people are sending change request to our organization. There are two types of change request to be solved.

4 Testing Terminology

Monkey Testing

A Test Engineer conducting a test on application build through the coverage of main activities only is called monkey testing or chimpanzee testing.

Exploratory Testing

A Tester conducts testing on an application build through the coverage of activities in level by level.

Ad-Hoc Testing

A Tester conducts a test on application build with respect to pre determined ideas is called ad-hoc testing.

Bigbang Testing

An organization conducting a single stage of testing after completion of entire modules development is called big bang testing or informal testing.

Incremental Testing

An organization follows the multiple stages of testing process from document level to system level is called incremental testing or formal testing.

Example: LCT (life cycle testing).

Sanity Testing

Whether the build released by the development team is stable for complete testing to be applied or not?

This observation is called sanity testing or tester acceptance testing (TAT) or build verification testing (BVT).

Smoke Testing

An extra shake-up in sanity testing is called smoke testing. In this phase test engineer will try to find the reason when the build is not working before start working.

Static versus Dynamic Testing

A tester conduct a test on application build without running during testing is called static testing.

Example: Usability, Alignment, Font, Style …..Etc.

A tester conduct a test through the execution of our application build is called dynamic testing.

Example: Functional, Performance and Security Testing.

Manual Vs Automation Testing

A Test Engineer conducts a test on application build without using any third party testing tool is called Manual Testing.

A Tester conducts a test on application build with the help of a testing tool is called test Automation Testing.

A Test impact indicates test repetition with multiple test data.

Example: functionality testing.

A Test criticality indicates that complexity to execute the test manually.

Example: load testing.

Re-Testing

The re-execution of a test on same application build with multiple test data is called re-testing.

Ex: multiple

Expected: Result = Input 1 * Input 2

Regression Testing

The re-execution of selected test on modified build to ensure bug fix work and occurrences of side effects is called regression testing.

Error : A mistake in coding is called Error.

Defect: A test engineer found mismatch due to mistakes in coding during testing is called

Defect or issue.

Bug : A defect accepted by developers to be solved is called Bug.

5 Testing Documents

5.1 Test Policy

It is a company level document and developed by quality control people. (almost management) this document defines “testing objective” to be achieved.

Address of company

Location of company

Testing Definition: Verification + Validation.

Testing Process: Proper planning before starts testing.

Testing Standard: 1 defect per 250 loc/1defect per 10fp.

Testing Measurements: QAM, TMM, PCM.

Signature of

(C.E.O)

LOC – Lines of code.

FP – Functional point.

Example: No of screens / No of forms / No. of reports / No. of inputs / No. of outputs / No. of queries.

Using functional point we can know the size of project.

QAM - Quality Assessment Measurements.

TMM - Test Management Measurements.

PCM - Process Capability Measurements.

5.2 Test Strategy

It is also a company level document and developed by quality analyst people (project manager level). This strategy document defines testing approach to be followed by testing team.

Scope and objective:

The purpose of testing in our organization.

Business issues

Budget control for testing

Ex:


Testing approach

mapping between development stages and testing issues. Ex: v-model

Development Stages

Testing

Issues

Information gathering & Analysis

Design

Coding

System Testing

Maintenance

Ease of Use

Authorization

.

.

X

X

Depends on change request

Test Responsibility Matrix (TRM) / Test Matrix (TM)

Test deliverables

names of testing documents to be prepared by testing team during every project testing.

Roles and responsibilities

names of jobs in testing team and responsibilities of every job during testing.

Communication and status reporting

required negotiation between every two consecutive jobs in testing team.

Test automation and testing tool

purpose of automation and availability of testing tools in your organization.

Defect reporting and tracking

required negotiation between testing team and development team when testers got mismatches in testing.

Testing measurements and metrics

QAM, TMM, PCM

Risks and mitigations

expected failures raised during testing and solutions to overcome.

Change and configuration management

how to handle sudden changes in customer requirements during testing.

Training plan

required number of sessions to understand customer requirements by testing team.

TEST FACTORS OR TESTING ISSUES

To define one quality software. Software engineering people are using 15 factors/issues.

Authorization

whether a user is valid or not? To connect to application.

Access control

whether a valid user have permissions to use specific service or not?

Audit trail

Maintains Meta data about operations.

Continuity of processing

integration of modules.

Correctness

Meet customer requirements in terms of functionality.

Coupling

Co-existence with other software applications to share common resources.

Ease of use

user friendliness of screens.

Ease of operate

Installation, uninstallation, dumping, down loading, up loading,—-etc.

File integrity

creation of back up during operations.

Reliability

recover from abnormal situations.

Portable

run on different platforms.

Performance

speed of processing.

Service levels

order of functionalities.

Maintainable

whether our application build is long time serviceable to customer site people or not?

Methodology

whether our testing team is following standards or not? ( during testing)

Case study

TEST FACTORS VS TESTING TECHNIQUES

Authorization:

Security testing (separate testing team)

Functionality/ requirement testing (common testing team)

Access control:

Security testing (separate testing team)

Functionality/ requirement testing (common testing team)

Audit trail

functionality/ requirement testing

Continuity of processing

integration testing (top down/ bottom up/ hybrid)

Correctness

functionality testing

Coupling

intersystem testing

Ease of use

user interface testing , manual support testing

Ease of operate

installation testing

File integrity

functionality/ requirement testing

Recovery testing

Reliability

recovery testing (1 user level)

Stress testing (peak load)

Portable

compatibility testing

Configuration testing

Performance

load testing, stress testing, storage testing, data volume testing.

Service levels

functionality/ requirements testing (1 user level)

Stress testing (peak load level)

Maintainable

compliance testing

methodology

compliance testing

Compliance testing

whether the testing team is following standards or not during testing, is called compliance testing. Compliance means that complete plan.

5.3 Test Methodology

It is a project level document. This document defines required testing approach for corresponding project testing. project manager like people are developing test methodology depending on company level test strategy. Due to this reason, test methodology is also known as a refinement form of test strategy.

To develop test methodology, project manager/quality analyst follows below approach. Before start every project testing.

Step 1 :- collect test strategy.

Step 2 :- identify current project type.

Project Type

Information Gathering &

Analysis

Design

Coding

System Testing

Maintenance

Traditional

Outsourcing

Maintenance

Note:- depending on project type, project manager delete some of the columns from TRM (test responsibility matrix) for this project testing.

Step 3 :- study project requirements.

Note: – depending on requirements in the project, PM delete unwanted factors (rows) from TRM for this project testing.

Step 4: – determine the scope of project requirements.

Note: – depending on expected future enhancements, PM is adding some of previously deleted factors to TRM for this project testing.

Step 5: – identify tactical risks.

Note: – depending on analyzed risks, PM is deleting some of the factors from selected TRM for this project testing.

CASE STUDY: 15 ç Test factors

-3 ç Requirements

——

12

+1 ç Scope of requirements

——

13

-4 ç Risks

——

9 ç Finalized to be applied on project

step 6 :- finalized TRM for current project testing.

Step 7 :- prepare system test plan.

Step 8 :- prepare module test plan.

TESTING PROCESS:

PET PROCESS

This process developed by HCL chennai it is also a refinement form of v-model. This process defines mapping between development process and testing process. From this process model, organizations are maintaining separate testing team for functional and system testing. The remaining stages of testing are done by developers.

PET stands for process experts tools and technology.

5.4 Test Plan

After completion of test initiation and testing process finalization, test lead category people are concentrating on test plan document preparation with “what to test?”, “how to test?” , “when to test?” , “who to test?” . in this test plan document preparation test lead is following below approach.

Testing team formation: in general test planning process starts with testing team formation. In this stage test lead is depending on below factors.

è Availability of test engineers

è Test duration the 3 factors are dependent

è Availability of test environment resources

Case study:

Test Duration: C/S, Web, ERP è 3 to 5 months of system testing

System s/w è 7 to 9 months of system testing

Machine critical è 12 to 15 months of system testing

Team Size: Developers : Testers = 3 : 1

Identify Tactical Risks: After formation of testing team, test lead is analyzing selected team level risks. This risk analysis is also known as Root Cause Analysis.

Ex: Risk 1 : lack of knowledge of testing team on that domain.

Risk 2 : lack of budget (time).

Risk 3 : lack of resources (testing tools not available)

Risk 4 : lack of test data (improper documents)

Risk 5 : delays in delivery

Risk 6 : lack of development process rigor

Risk 7 : lack of communication (in b/w testing team to development team)

Prepare test plan: after completion of testing team formation and risks analysis, test lead concentrate on test plan document preparation in IEEE format (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).

Format:

Test plan ID: unique number / name.

Introduction: about project

Test items: names of all modules in that project ex: website.

Features to be tested: new module names for test design. (What to test)

Features not to be tested: which ones and why not? (Copy test cases from server)

Approach: selected list of testing techniques by project manager to be applied on above modules,(finalized TRM)

Testing tasks: necessary operations to do before start every module testing.

Suspension criteria: possible raised problems during above modules testing.

Ex: exception handling.

Feature pass/fail criteria: when a module is pass and when a module is fail.

Test environment: required hardware’s and software’s to conduct testing on above modulus. Ex: WinRunner

Test deliverables: names of testing documents to be prepared during above modulus

EX: test cases, test procedures, test scripts, test log, defect reports for every modules.

Staff and training needs: names of selected test engineers for this project testing

Responsibilities: mapping between names of test engineers and names of modules.

(Work allocation)

Schedule: dates and times.

Risks and mitigations: raised problems during testing and solutions to overcome.

Approvers: signatures of project manager and test lead.

Review test plan

After completion of first copy of test plan document development, test lead conducts a review on that document for completeness and correctness. In this review meeting test lead concentrate on coverage analysis.

Coverage analysis:

è Business requirement based coverage (what to test?)

è TRM based coverage (how to test?)

è Risks based coverage (when & who to test?)

After finalizations of test plan, test lead is providing some training sessions to selected testing team on project requirements.

5.5 Test Design

After finalization of test plan and after completion of training sessions, test engineers are concentrating on test cases development for responsible modules. There are three methods to prepare test cases such as:

· Business logic based test case design (depending on srs)

· Input domain based test case design (design documents)

· User interface based test case design.

Business logic based test case design

In general, test engineers are preparing maximum test cases depending on use cases in srs. Every use case is describing functionality in terms of inputs, process and outputs.

From the above model test engineers are preparing test cases depending on that use case. Every use case is also known as functional specification. Every test case describes a testable condition to be applied on build.

To study use cases, test engineers are following below approach.

Step1: collect required use cases for responsible modules.

Step2: selecting a use case and their dependencies from above collected list of use case.

Step2.1: identify entry condition (base state)

Step2.2: identify input required (test data)

Step2.3: identify output and out come (expected)

Step2.4: study normal flow (navigation)

Step2.5: study end condition (end state)

Step2.6: study alternative flow and exceptions

Step3: prepare test cases depending on above study of use cases

Step4: review the test cases for completeness and correctness

Step5: go to step2 until all use cases study completion

Test case format

during test design test engineers are preparing test cases in IEEE format. Through these formats test engineers are documenting every test case.

Format:

Test case id: unique number/name

Test case name: the name of test conditions.

Feature to be tested: corresponding module or function name.

Test suit id: the corresponding batch id, in that batch this case is also member.

Priority: the importance of test case in terms of functionality.

EX: P0—basic functionality (requirements)

P1—general functionality (recovery, Compatability, inter systems, load—)

P2—cosmetic functionality (user inter face)

Test environment: required hard wares and soft wares including testing tool to execute this test case.

Test efforts: (person/hour) time to execute this test case .

EX: 20 min average time

Test duration: Date and time

Test setup: necessary tasks to do before start this case execution

Test procedure: this step-by-step procedure from base state to end state

Test case pass/fail criteria: when this case is pass/ when this case is fail

NOTE: in general, test engineers are not maintaining complete format for every test case. They can try to maintain test procedure as manitary for every test case.

Input domain based test case design

in general, test engineers are preparing test cases depending on use cases or functional specifications in srs. Some times they can go to depending on design documents also. Because, use cases are not providing complete information about size and type of input objects. Due to this reason, test engineers are studying data models in design documents.

EX: ER-diagrams (entity relation ship diagrams)

In this study, test engineers are following below approach

Step1: collect data models of responsible modules from design documents

Ex: ER-diagrams

Step2: study every input attribute in terms of size and type with constraints

Step3: prepare BVA and ECP for every input attribute in below format

I/P Attribute

ECP

BVA (Size/Range)

Valid

Invalid

Min

Max

This table is called DATA MATRIX. This table is providing information about every object

Step4: identify critical and non-critical inputs in above list

Ex:

Critical inputs are involving in internal manipulations. Non-critical inputs used for printing purpose.

NOTE: If our test case is covering an operation, then test engineers are preparing step-by-step procedure from base state to end state. If our test case is covering an object, then test engineers are preparing data matrix.

User interface based test case design

To conduct usability testing, test engineers are preparing test cases depending on global user inter face convection, our organization rules and interest of customer site people.

Example test cases:

Test case1: spelling check

Test case2: graphics check (alignment, font, style, color and other micro soft six rules)

Test case3: meaning full error messages

Test case4: accuracy of data display

Test case5: accuracy of data in the database as a result of user input

Test case6: accuracy of data in the database as a result of external factors

Ex: file attachment, export files, import files etc

Test case7: meaning full help messages

NOTE: test case1 to test case6 are indicating user inter face testing and test case7 is indicating manuals support testing.

Test design review

Before receiving build from development team to start test execution, test lead is analyzing the completeness and correctness of prepared test cases by test engineers through a review meeting. In this review test lead is depending on coverage analysis.

Business requirement based coverage

—Use cases based coverage

—Data model based coverage

—User inter face based coverage

—Test responsibility matrix based coverage

At the end of this review, test lead is preparing requirements trace ability matrix (RTM). This matrix defines mapping between customer requirements and prepare test cases. This matrix is also known as requirements validation matrix (RVM).

5.6 Test Execution

after completion of test design and their reviews, testing team is receiving initial build from development team to start test execution.

Levels of test execution:

Level –0 testing on initial build

Level –1 testing on stable build

Level –2 testing on modified stable build

Level –3 testing on master build (ready to release)

Levels of Test Execution Vs Test Cases:

Level –0 è Initial build è All Po test cases (Basic functionality).

Level –1 è Stable build è All Po, P1, and p2 Test cases as test batches.

Level –2 è Modified build è Selected Po, P1, and P2 test cases w.r.t modifications.

Level –3 è Master build è Selected Po, P1, and P2 test cases w.r.t bug density.

Build version control

In general, testing team is receiving build from development team. With the help of existing network protocols.

From the above model, testing team is receiving build from development team through FTP. To access soft base in network server. Soft base in server consists of old builds and modified builds; development people are assigning unique version number to that builds. This version numbering system is under stand able to testing team. For this build version controlling, development people are using version control tools.

Ex: vss (visual source safe)

Test harness: test harness means that readiness to start test execution.

Level-0 (sanity testing): after receiving initial build from development team, testing team is concentrating on sanity testing to estimate stability of that build to be applied complete testing. In this preliminary testing, testing team concentrates on basic functionality of that build. In this functionality coverage, testing team concentrate on below factors.

è Under stand ability

è Operatability

è Absorbability

è Controllability Testability

è Consistency

è Simplicity

è Maintainability

è Automat ability

From the above 8 factors, sanity testing is also known as testability testing or octangle testing, tester acceptance testing and build verification testing.

Test automation if possible: After receiving stable build from development team, test engineers are creating automated test scripts with required checkpoints, If possible all test cases are not automat able. Due to this reason test engineers are making automation test scripts for repeatable and complex test cases.

Case study: In general, testing teams are following selective automation only. In this selective automation test engineers are creating test scripts using testing tools for functionality or requirements test cases and load/stress test cases.

Test Execution Type

Testing Techniques

Testing Tools

Comments

Manual

UI testing manuals support testing

Easy to conduct

Manual / automation

Functionality testing

WR, QTP, Robot, Silk Test

Basic functionality testing is repeatable

Manual

Recovery, Compatability, Configuration, Inter systems, Installation, Sanitation and Parallel Testing

No tools in market

Manual / with Automation

Load and Stress Testing

Load Runner, SQA load Test, Silk Performer, J meter

Expensive manually and complex to conduct

Manual

Storage and data volume testing security testing

No tools in market for this type of testing.

Level-1 (comprehensive testing): After receiving stable build and after completion of all possible automation, testing team arrange test cases as batches. Every test batch consists of the set of dependent test cases. These test batches are also known as test suit or test set. During these test batches execution, test engineers are preparing test log documents. This test log document consists of three types of entries.

–Passed, all expected values are equal to actual values

–Failed, any one expected value vary with actual

–Blocked, postponed due to in correct parent functionality

Level-2 (regression testing): During level-1/comprehensive testing, test engineers are reporting mismatches to development team. After receiving modified build from development team, test engineers are concentrating on regression testing, test engineers are following below approach with respect to seriousness of that mismatches.

Case1: If the development team resolved bug severity is high, then test engineers are re-executing all p0, all p1 and carefully selected p2 test cases on that modified build with respect to modifications.

Case2: If the development team resolved bug severity is medium, then test engineers are re-executing all p0, carefully selected p1 and some of p2 test cases with respect to modifications.

Case3: If the development team resolved bug severity is low then test engineers are re-executing some of p0, p1 and p2 test cases with respect to modifications.

Case4: If the development team released modified build due to sudden changes in customer requirements then test engineers are re-executing all p0, all p1 and carefully selected p2 test cases with respect to that change in the requirements.

9.Error, Defect, Bug: A mistake in coding is called error.

Coding errors found by testing team during testing called defect or issues.

Testing team reported issues accepted by development team to be solved, called bug.

5.7 Test Reporting Or Defect Tracking

During level-1 and level-2 test execution, test engineers are reporting mismatches to development team in IEEE format.

Format:

defect id: unique number and name.

description: summary of defect

build version id: version number of build, in which test engineers found this defect

feature: the corresponding module name, in which test engineer found this defect

test case name: the name of test condition, during this case execution, test engineer found this defect

reproducable: yes, means defect appears every time in test execution No, means defect appears rarely in test execution

if yes, attach test procedure

if no, attach snap shot and strong reasons

fonud by: the name of test engineer

detected on: date of submission

assigned to: the responsible person at development side to receive this defect

status: New – Re-reporting defect or Reopen – Reporting defect first time

severity: The seriousness of defect in terms of functionality

High – Not able to continue test execution with out resolving that defect

Medium – Able to continue remaining testing but compulsory to solve

Low – Able to continue remaining testing but optional to resolve (may/may not)

priority: the importance of this defect in terms of customer

suggested fix (optional): expected possibilities to resolve this defect by developers

fixed by: project manager/project lead

resolved by: programmer name

resolved on: date of resolving

resolution type:

approved by: signature of project manager

NOTE: in above format development people try to change priority of defect with respect to customer importance

Defect age: The time gap between defect reported date and defect resolved date is called defect age

Defect submission:

Large-scale organizations

Small & medium scale organizations

Defect status:

Bug life cycle:

Defect resolution type: During test execution, test engineers are reporting mismatches to development team as defects. After receiving defect reporting from testing team, development people are conducting bug-fixing review and they will send resolution type report to corresponding testing team. There are 12 types of resolutions to report to testing team.

duplicate: Rejected due to this defect equal to previously reported defect.

enhancement: rejected due to this defect related to future requirement of the customer

hard ware limitation: rejected due to this defect related to limitations of hard ware devices

soft ware limitation: rejected due to this defect related to limitations of soft ware technologies

not applicable: rejected due to improper meaning of defect

functions as designed: rejected due to coding is correct with respect to design logic

need more information: not accepted and not rejected but developer’s required extra information to under stand the defect

not reproducible: not accepted and not rejected but developer’s required correct producer to reproduce that defect

no plan to fix it: not accepted and not rejected but developer’s required extra time to fix

fixed: accepted and ready to resolve

fixed indirectly (deferred): accepted but postponed to future version

user misunder standing: extra negotiation between developers and tester

TYPES OF BUGS: During test execution either in manual or in automation, test engineers are finding below types of bugs.

users inter face bugs: (low severity)

Ex1: spelling mistake (high priority)

Ex2: improper right alignment (low priority)

Error handling bugs: (medium severity)

Ex1: does not return error message (high priority)

Ex2: complex meaning in error message (low priority)

Input domain bugs: (medium severity)

Ex1: allows in valid inputs (high priority)

Ex2: allows in valid type also (low priority)

Calculations bugs: (high severity)

Ex1: dependent out puts are wrong (application show stopper) (high priority)

Ex2: find out put is wrong (module show stopper) (low priority)

Race condition bugs: (high severity)

Ex1: deadlock or hang (application show stopper) (high priority)

Ex2: improper order of functionalities (low priority)

Load condition bugs: (high severity)

Ex1: does not allows multiple users (high priority)

Ex2: does not allows customer expected load (low priority)

Hard ware bugs: (high severity)

Ex1: not able to establish connection to hard ware device (high priority)

Ex2: wrong out put from device (low priority)

Version control bugs: (medium severity)

Ex1: mis matches in between two consecutive build versions

ID-control bugs: (medium severity)

Ex: wrong logo, logo missing, copy right window missing, wrong version number, soft ware title mistake, team members names missing——etc.

Source bugs: (medium severity)

Ex: mistakes in help documents


TEST CLOSER:
After completion of all possible test execution and bugs resolving, test lead concentrate on test closer to stop testing process. In this review test lead is depending on below factors.

Coverage analysis:

Business requirements based coverage

Use cases based coverage

Data model based coverage

In put domain based coverage

User inter face based coverage

Test responsibilities matrix based coverage

Bug density:

Ex: A – 20%

B – 20%

C – 40% ç Need for Regression

D – 20%

100%

1. Analysis of deferred bug: whether the deferred bugs are postponable or not?

At the end of this review meeting, test lead can go to select high bug density module in our application build for final regression (level-3)

Above approach is also known as level-3 testing (or) final regression testing (or) pre-acceptance testing (or) post mortem testing

After completion of this final regression, testing team concentrate on user acceptance with the help of real customers (or) model customers.

USER ACCEPTANCE TESTING: After completion of test closer test management is concentrating on user acceptance testing to collect feedback from customer site people. There are two approaches to conduct user acceptance testing such as

SIGN OFF: After completion of user acceptance testing and their modifications, test lead is preparing final test summary report. It is a part in “soft ware release note”(SRN). This final test summary report consists of below documents as members.

· Test methodology

· Test plan

· Requirements trace ability matrix

· Automated test scripts

· Final bugs summary report

Bug description

Found by

Feature

Severity

Status (closed/deferred)

Comments

è Final test summary report (FSTR)

Case study: (five months of testing process)

Deliverable

Responsibility

Completion time

Test Cases Preparation

Test Cases Review

Requirements Traceability Matrix

Test Automation

Test Execution (level-1 & Level-2)

Defect Reporting

Communication and Status

Reporting

Test Closer and Final Regression (Level-3)

User Acceptance Test

Sign Off

Test Engineers

Test Lead & Test Engineers

Test Lead

Test Engineers

Test Engineers

Test Engineer, Test Lead

Test Lead

Test Lead & Test Engineer

Customer site people including Testing Team

Test Lead

15-20 days

4-5 days

1-2 days

10-15 days

40-60 days

On going

Weekly twice

4-5 days

4-5 days

2-3 days

Auditing: During testing and maintaince of soft wares project and test management people are using three types of measurements and metric such as

(1) Quality assessment measurement (QAM)

(2) Test management measurement (TMM)

(3) Process capability measurement (PCM)

Quality assessment measurement: (QAM) During soft ware testing process, quality analyst or project manager is using these measurements to estimate quality assurance level in that testing process. (Monthly once)

è Stability:

Duration

No of Bugs

20%

80%

80%

20%

è Sufficiency:

· Requirements coverage (modules)

· Type-trigger analysis (what type of test completed)

Defect severity distribution: organization trend limit check.

Test management measurements: During a project testing process, test lead category people are using these measurements to estimate testing process coverage. (weekly twice)

èTest status:

· Completed cases execution

· In execution

· Yet to execute

è Delays in delivery:

· Bug arrival rate

· Bug resolution rate

· Bug ageing

è Test efficiency:

· Cost to find a bug

(Ex: 5 bugs/person-day)

Process capability measurements: During soft ware maintenance in customer site, QA and PM is using these measurements to improve testing team capability. (Yearly once)

è Defect escapes: (missed bugs by testing team)

a. Type- phase testing

b. Type- trigger analysis

c. Defect resolution rate (or) defect removal efficiency

i. DRE =A/(A+B)

1. Bugs found by testing team

2. Bugs found by customer during maintenance

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